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RonPub -- Research Online Publishing

RonPub (Research online Publishing) is an academic publisher of online, open access, peer-reviewed journals.  RonPub aims to provide a platform for researchers, developers, educators, and technical managers to share and exchange their research results worldwide.

RonPub Is Open Access:

RonPub publishes all of its journals under the open access model, defined under BudapestBerlin, and Bethesda open access declarations:

  • All articles published by RonPub is fully open access and online available to readers free of charge.  
  • All open access articles are distributed under  Creative Commons Attribution License,  which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction free of charge in any medium, provided that the original work is properly cited. 
  • Authors retain all copyright to their work.
  • Authors may also publish the publisher's version of their paper on any repository or website. 

RonPub Is Cost-Effective:

To be able to provide open access journals, RonPub defray publishing cost by charging an one-time publication fee for each accepted article. One of RonPub objectives is providing a fast and high-quality but lower-cost publishing service. In order to ensure that the fee is never a barrier to publication, RonPub offers a fee waiver for authors who do not have funds to cover publication fees. We also offer a partial fee waiver for editors and reviewers of RonPub as as reward for their work. See the respective Journal webpage for the concrete publication fee.

RonPub Publication Ethics Statement:

In order to ensure the publishing quality and the reputation of the publisher, it is important that all parties involved in the act of publishing adhere to the standards of the publishing ethical behaviour. To verify the originality of submissions, we use Plagiarism Detection Tools, like Anti-Plagiarism, PaperRater, Viper, to check the content of manuscripts submitted to our journals against previous publications.

RonPub follows the Code of Conduct of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE), and deals with the cases of misconduct according to the COPE Flowcharts

Long-Term Preservation in the German National Library

Our publications are archived and permanently-preserved in the German National Library. The publications, which are archived in the German National Library, are not only long-term preserved but also accessible in the future, because the German National Library ensures that digital data saved in the old formats can be viewed and used on current computer systems in the same way they were on the original systems which are long obsolete.

Where is RonPub?

RonPub is a registered corporation in Lübeck, Germany. Lübeck is a beautiful harbour city, 60 kilometer away from Hamburg.

OJIOT Cover
Open Journal of Internet of Things (OJIOT)
OJIOT, an open access and peer-reviewed online journal, publishes original and creative research results on the internet of things. OJIOT distributes its articles under the open access model. All articles of OJIOT are fully open access and online available to readers free of charge. There is no restriction on the length of the papers. Accepted manuscripts are published online immediately.
Publisher: RonPub UG (haftungsbeschränkt), Lübeck, Germany
Contact: OJIOT Editorial Office
ISSN: 2364-7108
Call for Papers: txtUTF-8 txtASCII pdf
OJIOT Cover
Open Journal of Internet of Things (OJIOT)
OJIOT, an open access and peer-reviewed online journal, publishes original and creative research results on the internet of things. OJIOT distributes its articles under the open access model. All articles of OJIOT are fully open access and online available to readers free of charge. There is no restriction on the length of the papers. Accepted manuscripts are published online immediately.
Publisher: RonPub UG (haftungsbeschränkt), Lübeck, Germany
Contact: OJIOT Editorial Office
ISSN: 2364-7108
Call for Papers: txtUTF-8 txtASCII pdf

Aims & Scope

The current internet with its applications like web browsing, emails, social networks and online games is human oriented. It is predicted that real objects will have a much bigger impact in the future internet. Any real object will be accessible and manageable via the internet, and real objects will automatically work in cooperation. This new vision is called as the internet of things (IoT). Realizing this vision offers a new dimension of real world services to the user.

OJIOT publishes regular research papers, short communications, reviews and visionary papers in all aspects of the internet of things. There is no restriction on the length of the papers. 

Short communications reports novel research ideas. The work represented should be technically sound and significantly advancing the state of the art. Short communications also include exploratory studies and methodological articles.

Regular research papers are full original findings with adequate experimental research. They make substantial theoretical and empirical contributions to the research field.  Research papers should be written in as concise a style as possible.

Research reviews are insightful and accessible overview of a certain field of research. They conceptualize research issues, synthesize existing findings and advance the understanding of the field. They may also suggest new research issues and directions.

Visionary papers identify new research issues and future research directions, and describe new research visions 

Topics relevant to this journal include, but are NOT limited to:

  • System architectures for IoT, e.g. 
    • things-centric, 
    • data-centric, 
    • event-centric, and
    • service-centric
  • IoT applications, including e.g.
    • smart homes/offices/cities, 
    • waste management, 
    • continuous care, 
    • emergency response, and 
    • intelligent shopping
  • Nano Technology, including e.g.
    • Nano Networks
    • Nano communication
    • Nano applications
    • Nano computing
    • Internet of Nano Tings
  • IoT programming toolkits and frameworks
  • IoT prototypes and evaluation test-beds
  • Privacy and security
  • IoT management and interoperability
  • Management of IoT streams
  • Enabling technologies and standards for the IoT
  • Spatial and temporal reasoning for IoT
  • Sustainability of IoT platforms, e.g. business models for deployment and maintenance
  • Societal challenges and IoT, e.g. urban planning and decision making tools
  • Ownership of data in IoT scenarios

Author Guidelines

Publication Criteria

Publication Criteria provides important information for authors to prepare their manuscripts with a high possibility of being accepted.

Manuscript Preparation

Please prepare your manuscripts using the manuscript template of the journal. It is available for download as word doc docx and latex version zip. The template describes the format and structure of manuscripts and other necessary information for preparing manuscripts. Manuscripts should be written in English. There is no restriction on the length of manuscripts.

Submission

Authors submit their manuscripts following the information on the submit pageAuthors first submit their manuscripts in PDF format. Once a manuscript is accepted, the author then submits the revised manuscript as a PDF file and a word file or latex folder (with all the material necessary to generate the PDF file). The work described in the submitted manuscript must be previously unpublished; it is not under consideration for publication anywhere else. 

Authors are welcome to suggest qualified reviewers for their papers, but this is not mandatory. If the author wants to do so, please provide the name, affiliations and e-mail addresses for all suggested reviewers.

Manuscript Status

After submission of manuscripts, authors will receive an email to confirm receipt of manuscripts. Subsequent enquiries concerning paper progress should be sent to the email address of the journal.

Review Procedure

RonPub is committed to enforcing a rigorous peer-review process. All manuscripts submitted for publication in RonPub journals are strictly and thoroughly peer-reviewed. Our editorial offices will organize the peer-reviewing and collect three review reports per manuscript. The editorial board will make an accept/revision/reject decision based on the reports of reviewers. Authors will be informed with the decision and reviewing results within 6-8 weeks after the manuscript submission. Authors should perform an adequate revision to address the concerns from reviewers. A second round of peer-review will be performed if necessary.

Accepted manuscripts are published online immediately.

Copyrights

Authors publishing with RonPub open journals retain the copyright to their work. 

All articles published by RonPub is fully open access and online available to readers free of charge.  RonPub publishes all open access articles under the Creative Commons Attribution License,  which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction freely, provided that the original work is properly cited.

Articles of OJIOT

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 Open Access 

A Classification Framework for Beacon Applications

Gottfried Vossen, Stuart Dillon, Fabian Schomm, Florian Stahl

Open Journal of Internet Of Things (OJIOT), 3(1), Pages 1-11, 2017, Downloads: 555

Full-Text: pdf | URN: urn:nbn:de:101:1-201704245012 | GNL-LP: 1130624145 | Meta-Data: tex xml rdf rss | Show/Hide Abstract | Show/Hide BibTex

Abstract: Beacons have received considerable attention in recent years, which is partially due to the fact that they serve as a flexible and versatile replacement for RFIDs in many applications. However, beacons are mostly considered from a purely technical perspective. This paper provides a conceptual view on application scenarios for beacons and introduces a novel framework for characterizing these. The framework consists of four dimensions: device movement, action trigger, purpose type, and connectivity requirements. Based on these, three archetypical scenarios are described. Finally, event-condition-action rules and online algorithms are used to formalize the backend of a beacon architecture.

BibTex:

    @Article{OJIOT_2017v3i1n01_Vossen,
        title     = {A Classification Framework for Beacon Applications},
        author    = {Gottfried Vossen and
                     Stuart Dillon and
                     Fabian Schomm and
                     Florian Stahl},
        journal   = {Open Journal of Internet Of Things (OJIOT)},
        issn      = {2364-7108},
        year      = {2017},
        volume    = {3},
        number    = {1},
        pages     = {1--11},
        url       = {http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:101:1-201704245012},
        urn       = {urn:nbn:de:101:1-201704245012},
        publisher = {RonPub},
        bibsource = {RonPub},
        abstract = {Beacons have received considerable attention in recent years, which is partially due to the fact that they serve as a flexible and versatile replacement for RFIDs in many applications. However, beacons are mostly considered from a purely technical perspective. This paper provides a conceptual view on application scenarios for beacons and introduces a novel framework for characterizing these. The framework consists of four dimensions: device movement, action trigger, purpose type, and connectivity requirements. Based on these, three archetypical scenarios are described. Finally, event-condition-action rules and online algorithms are used to formalize the backend of a beacon architecture.}
    }

 Open Access 

First Edition of the Very Large Internet of Things Workshop (VLIoT)

Sven Groppe, Carlo Alberto Boano

Open Journal of Internet Of Things (OJIOT), 3(1), Pages 12-17, 2017, Downloads: 251

Special Issue: Proceedings of the International Workshop on Very Large Internet of Things (VLIoT 2017) in conjunction with the VLDB 2017 Conference in Munich, Germany.

Full-Text: pdf | URN: urn:nbn:de:101:1-2017080613397 | GNL-LP: 1137820136 | Meta-Data: tex xml rdf rss | Show/Hide Abstract | Show/Hide BibTex

Abstract: This article is an editorial for the proceedings of the "Very Large Internet of Things (VLIoT 2017)" workshop in conjunction with the 43th International Conference on Very Large Data Bases (VLDB 2017), which takes place in Munich, Germany, from August 28th to September 1, 2017. The editorial of VLIoT@VLDB 2017 provides an overview over the aims and scope of the workshop, the review procedure, and the accepted papers. The proceedings of VLIoT@VLDB 2017 are published as special issue in the Open Journal of Internet of Things (OJIOT) (www.ronpub.com/ojiot), and the publisher of OJIOT is RonPub (www.ronpub.com).

BibTex:

    @Article{OJIOT_2017v3i1n02e_VLIoT2017,
        title     = {First Edition of the Very Large Internet of Things Workshop (VLIoT)},
        author    = {Sven Groppe and
                     Carlo Alberto Boano},
        journal   = {Open Journal of Internet Of Things (OJIOT)},
        issn      = {2364-7108},
        year      = {2017},
        volume    = {3},
        number    = {1},
        pages     = {12--17},
        note      = {Special Issue: Proceedings of the International Workshop on Very Large Internet of Things (VLIoT 2017) in conjunction with the VLDB 2017 Conference in Munich, Germany.},
        url       = {http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:101:1-2017080613397},
        urn       = {urn:nbn:de:101:1-2017080613397},
        publisher = {RonPub},
        bibsource = {RonPub},
        abstract = {This article is an editorial for the proceedings of the "Very Large Internet of Things (VLIoT 2017)" workshop in conjunction with the 43th International Conference on Very Large Data Bases (VLDB 2017), which takes place in Munich, Germany, from August 28th to September 1, 2017. The editorial of VLIoT@VLDB 2017 provides an overview over the aims and scope of the workshop, the review procedure, and the accepted papers. The proceedings of VLIoT@VLDB 2017 are published as special issue in the Open Journal of Internet of Things (OJIOT) (www.ronpub.com/ojiot), and the publisher of OJIOT is RonPub (www.ronpub.com).}
    }

 Open Access 

Latency Optimization in Large-Scale Cloud-Sensor Systems

Adhithya Balasubramanian, Sumi Helal, Yi Xu

Open Journal of Internet Of Things (OJIOT), 3(1), Pages 18-30, 2017, Downloads: 631, Citations: 1

Special Issue: Proceedings of the International Workshop on Very Large Internet of Things (VLIoT 2017) in conjunction with the VLDB 2017 Conference in Munich, Germany.

Full-Text: pdf | URN: urn:nbn:de:101:1-2017080613410 | GNL-LP: 1137820152 | Meta-Data: tex xml rdf rss | Show/Hide Abstract | Show/Hide BibTex

Abstract: With the advent of the Internet of Things and smart city applications, massive cyber-physical interactions between the applications hosted in the cloud and a huge number of external physical sensors and devices is an inevitable situation. This raises two main challenges: cloud cost affordability as the smart city grows (referred to as economical cloud scalability) and the energy-efficient operation of sensor hardware. We have developed Cloud-Edge-Beneath (CEB), a multi-tier architecture for large-scale IoT deployments, embodying distributed optimizations, which address these two major challenges. In this article, we summarize our prior work on CEB to set context for presenting a third major challenge for cloud sensor-systems, which is latency. Prolonged latency can potentially arise in servicing requests from cloud applications, especially given our primary focus on optimizing energy and cloud scalability. Latency, however, is an important factor to optimize for real-time and cyber-physical applications with limited tolerance to delays. Also, improving the responsiveness of any IoT application is bound to improve the user experience and hence the acceptability and adoption of smart city solutions by the city citizens. In this article, we aim to give a formal definition and formulation for the latency optimization problem under CEB. We propose a Prioritized Application Fragment Caching Algorithm (PAFCA) to selectively cache application fragments from the cloud to lower layers of CEB, as a key measure to optimize latency. The algorithm itself is an extension of one of the existing optimization algorithms of CEB (AFCA-1). As will be shown, PAFCA takes into account the expectations of cloud applications on real-timeliness of responses. Through experiments, we measure and validate the effect of PAFCA on latency and cloud scalability. We also introduce and discuss the trade-off between latency and sensor energy in this given context.

BibTex:

    @Article{OJIOT_2017v3i1n03_Balasubramanian,
        title     = {Latency Optimization in Large-Scale Cloud-Sensor Systems},
        author    = {Adhithya Balasubramanian and
                     Sumi Helal and
                     Yi Xu},
        journal   = {Open Journal of Internet Of Things (OJIOT)},
        issn      = {2364-7108},
        year      = {2017},
        volume    = {3},
        number    = {1},
        pages     = {18--30},
        note      = {Special Issue: Proceedings of the International Workshop on Very Large Internet of Things (VLIoT 2017) in conjunction with the VLDB 2017 Conference in Munich, Germany.},
        url       = {http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:101:1-2017080613410},
        urn       = {urn:nbn:de:101:1-2017080613410},
        publisher = {RonPub},
        bibsource = {RonPub},
        abstract = {With the advent of the Internet of Things and smart city applications, massive cyber-physical interactions between the applications hosted in the cloud and a huge number of external physical sensors and devices is an inevitable situation. This raises two main challenges: cloud cost affordability as the smart city grows (referred to as economical cloud scalability) and the energy-efficient operation of sensor hardware. We have developed Cloud-Edge-Beneath (CEB), a multi-tier architecture for large-scale IoT deployments, embodying distributed optimizations, which address these two major challenges. In this article, we summarize our prior work on CEB to set context for presenting a third major challenge for cloud sensor-systems, which is latency. Prolonged latency can potentially arise in servicing requests from cloud applications, especially given our primary focus on optimizing energy and cloud scalability. Latency, however, is an important factor to optimize for real-time and cyber-physical applications with limited tolerance to delays. Also, improving the responsiveness of any IoT application is bound to improve the user experience and hence the acceptability and adoption of smart city solutions by the city citizens. In this article, we aim to give a formal definition and formulation for the latency optimization problem under CEB. We propose a Prioritized Application Fragment Caching Algorithm (PAFCA) to selectively cache application fragments from the cloud to lower layers of CEB, as a key measure to optimize latency. The algorithm itself is an extension of one of the existing optimization algorithms of CEB (AFCA-1). As will be shown, PAFCA takes into account the expectations of cloud applications on real-timeliness of responses. Through experiments, we measure and validate the effect of PAFCA on latency and cloud scalability. We also introduce and discuss the trade-off between latency and sensor energy in this given context.}
    }

 Open Access 

Rewriting Complex Queries from Cloud to Fog under Capability Constraints to Protect the Users' Privacy

Hannes Grunert, Andreas Heuer

Open Journal of Internet Of Things (OJIOT), 3(1), Pages 31-45, 2017, Downloads: 424, Citations: 4

Special Issue: Proceedings of the International Workshop on Very Large Internet of Things (VLIoT 2017) in conjunction with the VLDB 2017 Conference in Munich, Germany.

Full-Text: pdf | URN: urn:nbn:de:101:1-2017080613421 | GNL-LP: 1137820160 | Meta-Data: tex xml rdf rss | Show/Hide Abstract | Show/Hide BibTex

Abstract: In this paper we show how existing query rewriting and query containment techniques can be used to achieve an efficient and privacy-aware processing of queries. To achieve this, the whole network structure, from data producing sensors up to cloud computers, is utilized to create a database machine consisting of billions of devices from the Internet of Things. Based on previous research in the field of database theory, especially query rewriting, we present a concept to split a query into fragment and remainder queries. Fragment queries can operate on resource limited devices to filter and preaggregate data. Remainder queries take these data and execute the last, complex part of the original queries on more powerful devices. As a result, less data is processed and forwarded in the network and the privacy principle of data minimization is accomplished.

BibTex:

    @Article{OJIOT_2017v3i1n04_Grunert,
        title     = {Rewriting Complex Queries from Cloud to Fog under Capability Constraints to Protect the Users' Privacy},
        author    = {Hannes Grunert and
                     Andreas Heuer},
        journal   = {Open Journal of Internet Of Things (OJIOT)},
        issn      = {2364-7108},
        year      = {2017},
        volume    = {3},
        number    = {1},
        pages     = {31--45},
        note      = {Special Issue: Proceedings of the International Workshop on Very Large Internet of Things (VLIoT 2017) in conjunction with the VLDB 2017 Conference in Munich, Germany.},
        url       = {http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:101:1-2017080613421},
        urn       = {urn:nbn:de:101:1-2017080613421},
        publisher = {RonPub},
        bibsource = {RonPub},
        abstract = {In this paper we show how existing query rewriting and query containment techniques can be used to achieve an efficient and privacy-aware processing of queries. To achieve this, the whole network structure, from data producing sensors up to cloud computers, is utilized to create a database machine consisting of billions of devices from the Internet of Things. Based on previous research in the field of database theory, especially query rewriting, we present a concept to split a query into fragment and remainder queries. Fragment queries can operate on resource limited devices to filter and preaggregate data. Remainder queries take these data and execute the last, complex part of the original queries on more powerful devices. As a result, less data is processed and forwarded in the network and the privacy principle of data minimization is accomplished.}
    }

 Open Access 

Semantic Blockchain to Improve Scalability in the Internet of Things

Michele Ruta, Floriano Scioscia, Saverio Ieva, Giovanna Capurso, Eugenio Di Sciascio

Open Journal of Internet Of Things (OJIOT), 3(1), Pages 46-61, 2017, Downloads: 1758, Citations: 3

Special Issue: Proceedings of the International Workshop on Very Large Internet of Things (VLIoT 2017) in conjunction with the VLDB 2017 Conference in Munich, Germany.

Full-Text: pdf | URN: urn:nbn:de:101:1-2017080613488 | GNL-LP: 1137820225 | Meta-Data: tex xml rdf rss | Show/Hide Abstract | Show/Hide BibTex

Abstract: Generally scarce computational and memory resource availability is a well known problem for the IoT, whose intrinsic volatility makes complex applications unfeasible. Noteworthy efforts in overcoming unpredictability (particularly in case of large dimensions) are the ones integrating Knowledge Representation technologies to build the so-called Semantic Web of Things (SWoT). In spite of allowed advanced discovery features, transactions in the SWoT still suffer from not viable trust management strategies. Given its intrinsic characteristics, blockchain technology appears as interesting from this perspective: a semantic resource/service discovery layer built upon a basic blockchain infrastructure gains a consensus validation. This paper proposes a novel Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) based on a semantic blockchain for registration, discovery, selection and payment. Such operations are implemented as smart contracts, allowing distributed execution and trust. Reported experiments early assess the sustainability of the proposal.

BibTex:

    @Article{OJIOT_2017v3i1n05_Ruta,
        title     = {Semantic Blockchain to Improve Scalability in the Internet of Things},
        author    = {Michele Ruta and
                     Floriano Scioscia and
                     Saverio Ieva and
                     Giovanna Capurso and
                     Eugenio Di Sciascio},
        journal   = {Open Journal of Internet Of Things (OJIOT)},
        issn      = {2364-7108},
        year      = {2017},
        volume    = {3},
        number    = {1},
        pages     = {46--61},
        note      = {Special Issue: Proceedings of the International Workshop on Very Large Internet of Things (VLIoT 2017) in conjunction with the VLDB 2017 Conference in Munich, Germany.},
        url       = {http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:101:1-2017080613488},
        urn       = {urn:nbn:de:101:1-2017080613488},
        publisher = {RonPub},
        bibsource = {RonPub},
        abstract = {Generally scarce computational and memory resource availability is a well known problem for the IoT, whose intrinsic volatility makes complex applications unfeasible. Noteworthy efforts in overcoming unpredictability (particularly in case of large dimensions) are the ones integrating Knowledge Representation technologies to build the so-called Semantic Web of Things (SWoT). In spite of allowed advanced discovery features, transactions in the SWoT still suffer from not viable trust management strategies. Given its intrinsic characteristics, blockchain technology appears as interesting from this perspective: a semantic resource/service discovery layer built upon a basic blockchain infrastructure gains a consensus validation. This paper proposes a novel Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) based on a semantic blockchain for registration, discovery, selection and payment. Such operations are implemented as smart contracts, allowing distributed execution and trust. Reported experiments early assess the sustainability of the proposal.}
    }

 Open Access 

Differentially Private Linear Models for Gossip Learning through Data Perturbation

István Hegedus, Márk Jelasity

Open Journal of Internet Of Things (OJIOT), 3(1), Pages 62-74, 2017, Downloads: 510, Citations: 1

Special Issue: Proceedings of the International Workshop on Very Large Internet of Things (VLIoT 2017) in conjunction with the VLDB 2017 Conference in Munich, Germany.

Full-Text: pdf | URN: urn:nbn:de:101:1-2017080613445 | GNL-LP: 1137820187 | Meta-Data: tex xml rdf rss | Show/Hide Abstract | Show/Hide BibTex

Abstract: Privacy is a key concern in many distributed systems that are rich in personal data such as networks of smart meters or smartphones. Decentralizing the processing of personal data in such systems is a promising first step towards achieving privacy through avoiding the collection of data altogether. However, decentralization in itself is not enough: Additional guarantees such as differential privacy are highly desirable. Here, we focus on stochastic gradient descent (SGD), a popular approach to implement distributed learning. Our goal is to design differentially private variants of SGD to be applied in gossip learning, a decentralized learning framework. Known approaches that are suitable for our scenario focus on protecting the gradient that is being computed in each iteration of SGD. This has the drawback that each data point can be accessed only a small number of times. We propose a solution in which we effectively publish the entire database in a differentially private way so that linear learners could be run that are allowed to access any (perturbed) data point any number of times. This flexibility is very useful when using the method in combination with distributed learning environments. We show empirically that the performance of the obtained model is comparable to that of previous gradient-based approaches and it is even superior in certain scenarios.

BibTex:

    @Article{OJIOT_2017v3i1n06_Hegedus,
        title     = {Differentially Private Linear Models for Gossip Learning through Data Perturbation},
        author    = {Istv\'{a}n Hegedus and
                     M\'{a}rk Jelasity},
        journal   = {Open Journal of Internet Of Things (OJIOT)},
        issn      = {2364-7108},
        year      = {2017},
        volume    = {3},
        number    = {1},
        pages     = {62--74},
        note      = {Special Issue: Proceedings of the International Workshop on Very Large Internet of Things (VLIoT 2017) in conjunction with the VLDB 2017 Conference in Munich, Germany.},
        url       = {http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:101:1-2017080613445},
        urn       = {urn:nbn:de:101:1-2017080613445},
        publisher = {RonPub},
        bibsource = {RonPub},
        abstract = {Privacy is a key concern in many distributed systems that are rich in personal data such as networks of smart meters or smartphones. Decentralizing the processing of personal data in such systems is a promising first step towards achieving privacy through avoiding the collection of data altogether. However, decentralization in itself is not enough: Additional guarantees such as differential privacy are highly desirable. Here, we focus on stochastic gradient descent (SGD), a popular approach to implement distributed learning. Our goal is to design differentially private variants of SGD to be applied in gossip learning, a decentralized learning framework. Known approaches that are suitable for our scenario focus on protecting the gradient that is being computed in each iteration of SGD. This has the drawback that each data point can be accessed only a small number of times. We propose a solution in which we effectively publish the entire database in a differentially private way so that linear learners could be run that are allowed to access any (perturbed) data point any number of times. This flexibility is very useful when using the method in combination with distributed learning environments. We show empirically that the performance of the obtained model is comparable to that of previous gradient-based approaches and it is even superior in certain scenarios.}
    }

 Open Access 

Multi-Layer Cross Domain Reasoning over Distributed Autonomous IoT Applications

Muhammad Intizar Ali, Pankesh Patel, Soumya Kanti Datta, Amelie Gyrard

Open Journal of Internet Of Things (OJIOT), 3(1), Pages 75-90, 2017, Downloads: 696, Citations: 1

Special Issue: Proceedings of the International Workshop on Very Large Internet of Things (VLIoT 2017) in conjunction with the VLDB 2017 Conference in Munich, Germany.

Full-Text: pdf | URN: urn:nbn:de:101:1-2017080613451 | GNL-LP: 1137820195 | Meta-Data: tex xml rdf rss | Show/Hide Abstract | Show/Hide BibTex

Abstract: Due to the rapid advancements in the sensor technologies and IoT, we are witnessing a rapid growth in the use of sensors and relevant IoT applications. A very large number of sensors and IoT devices are in place in our surroundings which keep sensing dynamic contextual information. A true potential of the wide-spread of IoT devices can only be realized by designing and deploying a large number of smart IoT applications which can provide insights on the data collected from IoT devices and support decision making by converting raw sensor data into actionable knowledge. However, the process of getting value from sensor data streams and converting these raw sensor values into actionable knowledge requires extensive efforts from IoT application developers and domain experts. In this paper, our main aim is to propose a multi-layer cross domain reasoning framework, which can support application developers, end-users and domain experts to automatically understand relevant events and extract actionable knowledge with minimal efforts. Our framework reduces the efforts required for IoT applications development (i) by supporting automated application code generation and access mechanisms using IoTSuite, (ii) by leveraging from Machine-to-Machine Measurement (M3) framework to exploit semantic technologies and domain knowledge, and (iii) by using automated sensor discovery and complex event processing of relevant events (ACEIS Middleware) at the multiple data processing layers and different stages of the IoT application development life cycle. In the essence, our framework supports the end-users and IoT application developers to design innovative IoT applications by reducing the programming efforts, by identifying relevant events and by suggesting potential actions based on complex event processing and reasoning for cross-domain IoT applications.

BibTex:

    @Article{OJIOT_2017v3i1n07_Ali,
        title     = {Multi-Layer Cross Domain Reasoning over Distributed Autonomous IoT Applications},
        author    = {Muhammad Intizar Ali and
                     Pankesh Patel and
                     Soumya Kanti Datta and
                     Amelie Gyrard},
        journal   = {Open Journal of Internet Of Things (OJIOT)},
        issn      = {2364-7108},
        year      = {2017},
        volume    = {3},
        number    = {1},
        pages     = {75--90},
        note      = {Special Issue: Proceedings of the International Workshop on Very Large Internet of Things (VLIoT 2017) in conjunction with the VLDB 2017 Conference in Munich, Germany.},
        url       = {http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:101:1-2017080613451},
        urn       = {urn:nbn:de:101:1-2017080613451},
        publisher = {RonPub},
        bibsource = {RonPub},
        abstract = {Due to the rapid advancements in the sensor technologies and IoT, we are witnessing a rapid growth in the use of sensors and relevant IoT applications. A very large number of sensors and IoT devices are in place in our surroundings which keep sensing dynamic contextual information. A true potential of the wide-spread of IoT devices can only be realized by designing and deploying a large number of smart IoT applications which can provide insights on the data collected from IoT devices and support decision making by converting raw sensor data into actionable knowledge. However, the process of getting value from sensor data streams and converting these raw sensor values into actionable knowledge requires extensive efforts from IoT application developers and domain experts. In this paper, our main aim is to propose a multi-layer cross domain reasoning framework, which can support application developers, end-users and domain experts to automatically understand relevant events and extract actionable knowledge with minimal efforts. Our framework reduces the efforts required for IoT applications development (i) by supporting automated application code generation and access mechanisms using IoTSuite, (ii) by leveraging from Machine-to-Machine Measurement (M3) framework to exploit semantic technologies and domain knowledge, and (iii) by using automated sensor discovery and complex event processing of relevant events (ACEIS Middleware) at the multiple data processing layers and different stages of the IoT application development life cycle. In the essence, our framework supports the end-users and IoT application developers to design innovative IoT applications by reducing the programming efforts, by identifying relevant events and by suggesting potential actions based on complex event processing and reasoning for cross-domain IoT applications.}
    }

 Open Access 

Sensing as a Service: Secure Wireless Sensor Network Infrastructure Sharing for the Internet of Things

Cintia B. Margi, Renan C. A. Alves, Johanna Sepulveda

Open Journal of Internet Of Things (OJIOT), 3(1), Pages 91-102, 2017, Downloads: 666, Citations: 3

Special Issue: Proceedings of the International Workshop on Very Large Internet of Things (VLIoT 2017) in conjunction with the VLDB 2017 Conference in Munich, Germany.

Full-Text: pdf | URN: urn:nbn:de:101:1-2017080613467 | GNL-LP: 1137820209 | Meta-Data: tex xml rdf rss | Show/Hide Abstract | Show/Hide BibTex

Abstract: Internet of Things (IoT) andWireless Sensor Networks (WSN) are composed of devices capable of sensing/actuation, communication and processing. They are valuable technology for the development of applications in several areas, such as environmental, industrial and urban monitoring and processes controlling. Given the challenges of different protocols and technologies used for communication, resource constrained devices nature, high connectivity and security requirements for the applications, the main challenges that need to be addressed include: secure communication between IoT devices, network resource management and the protected implementation of the security mechanisms. In this paper, we present a secure Software-Defined Networking (SDN) based framework that includes: communication protocols, node task programming middleware, communication and computation resource management features and security services. The communication layer for the constrained devices considers IT-SDN as its basis. Concerning security, we address the main services, the type of algorithms to achieve them, and why their secure implementation is needed. Lastly, we showcase how the Sensing as a Service paradigm could enable WSN usage in more environments.

BibTex:

    @Article{OJIOT_2017v3i1n08_Margi,
        title     = {Sensing as a Service: Secure Wireless Sensor Network Infrastructure Sharing for the Internet of Things},
        author    = {Cintia B. Margi and
                     Renan C. A. Alves and
                     Johanna Sepulveda},
        journal   = {Open Journal of Internet Of Things (OJIOT)},
        issn      = {2364-7108},
        year      = {2017},
        volume    = {3},
        number    = {1},
        pages     = {91--102},
        note      = {Special Issue: Proceedings of the International Workshop on Very Large Internet of Things (VLIoT 2017) in conjunction with the VLDB 2017 Conference in Munich, Germany.},
        url       = {http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:101:1-2017080613467},
        urn       = {urn:nbn:de:101:1-2017080613467},
        publisher = {RonPub},
        bibsource = {RonPub},
        abstract = {Internet of Things (IoT) andWireless Sensor Networks (WSN) are composed of devices capable of sensing/actuation, communication and processing. They are valuable technology for the development of applications in several areas, such as environmental, industrial and urban monitoring and processes controlling. Given the challenges of different protocols and technologies used for communication, resource constrained devices nature, high connectivity and security requirements for the applications, the main challenges that need to be addressed include: secure communication between IoT devices, network resource management and the protected implementation of the security mechanisms. In this paper, we present a secure Software-Defined Networking (SDN) based framework that includes: communication protocols, node task programming middleware, communication and computation resource management features and security services. The communication layer for the constrained devices considers IT-SDN as its basis. Concerning security, we address the main services, the type of algorithms to achieve them, and why their secure implementation is needed. Lastly, we showcase how the Sensing as a Service paradigm could enable WSN usage in more environments.}
    }

 Open Access 

Mitigating Radio Interference in Large IoT Networks through Dynamic CCA Adjustment

Tommy Sparber, Carlo Alberto Boano, Salil S. Kanhere, Kay Römer

Open Journal of Internet Of Things (OJIOT), 3(1), Pages 103-113, 2017, Downloads: 533, Citations: 1

Special Issue: Proceedings of the International Workshop on Very Large Internet of Things (VLIoT 2017) in conjunction with the VLDB 2017 Conference in Munich, Germany.

Full-Text: pdf | URN: urn:nbn:de:101:1-2017080613511 | GNL-LP: 113782025X | Meta-Data: tex xml rdf rss | Show/Hide Abstract | Show/Hide BibTex

Abstract: The performance of low-power wireless sensor networks used to build Internet of Things applications often suffers from radio interference generated by co-located wireless devices or from jammers maliciously placed in their proximity. As IoT devices typically operate in unsupervised large-scale installations, and as radio interference is typically localized and hence affects only a portion of the nodes in the network, it is important to give low-power wireless sensors and actuators the ability to autonomously mitigate the impact of surrounding interference. In this paper we present our approach DynCCA, which dynamically adapts the clear channel assessment threshold of IoT devices to minimize the impact of malicious or unintentional interference on both network reliability and energy efficiency. First, we describe how varying the clear channel assessment threshold at run-time using only information computed locally can help to minimize the impact of unintentional interference from surrounding devices and to escape jamming attacks. We then present the design and implementation of DynCCA on top of ContikiMAC and evaluate its performance on wireless sensor nodes equipped with IEEE 802.15.4 radios. Our experimental investigation shows that the use of DynCCA in dense IoT networks can increase the packet reception rate by up to 50% and reduce the energy consumption by a factor of 4.

BibTex:

    @Article{OJIOT_2017v3i1n09_Sparber,
        title     = {Mitigating Radio Interference in Large IoT Networks through Dynamic CCA Adjustment},
        author    = {Tommy Sparber and
                     Carlo Alberto Boano and
                     Salil S. Kanhere and
                     Kay R{\"o}mer},
        journal   = {Open Journal of Internet Of Things (OJIOT)},
        issn      = {2364-7108},
        year      = {2017},
        volume    = {3},
        number    = {1},
        pages     = {103--113},
        note      = {Special Issue: Proceedings of the International Workshop on Very Large Internet of Things (VLIoT 2017) in conjunction with the VLDB 2017 Conference in Munich, Germany.},
        url       = {http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:101:1-2017080613511},
        urn       = {urn:nbn:de:101:1-2017080613511},
        publisher = {RonPub},
        bibsource = {RonPub},
        abstract = {The performance of low-power wireless sensor networks used to build Internet of Things applications often suffers from radio interference generated by co-located wireless devices or from jammers maliciously placed in their proximity. As IoT devices typically operate in unsupervised large-scale installations, and as radio interference is typically localized and hence affects only a portion of the nodes in the network, it is important to give low-power wireless sensors and actuators the ability to autonomously mitigate the impact of surrounding interference. In this paper we present our approach DynCCA, which dynamically adapts the clear channel assessment threshold of IoT devices to minimize the impact of malicious or unintentional interference on both network reliability and energy efficiency. First, we describe how varying the clear channel assessment threshold at run-time using only information computed locally can help to minimize the impact of unintentional interference from surrounding devices and to escape jamming attacks. We then present the design and implementation of DynCCA on top of ContikiMAC and evaluate its performance on wireless sensor nodes equipped with IEEE 802.15.4 radios. Our experimental investigation shows that the use of DynCCA in dense IoT networks can increase the packet reception rate by up to 50\% and reduce the energy consumption by a factor of 4.}
    }

 Open Access 

Data Credence in IoT: Vision and Challenges

Vladimir I. Zadorozhny, Prashant Krishnamurthy, Mai Abdelhakim, Konstantinos Pelechrinis, Jiawei Xu

Open Journal of Internet Of Things (OJIOT), 3(1), Pages 114-126, 2017, Downloads: 670, Citations: 1

Special Issue: Proceedings of the International Workshop on Very Large Internet of Things (VLIoT 2017) in conjunction with the VLDB 2017 Conference in Munich, Germany.

Full-Text: pdf | URN: urn:nbn:de:101:1-2017080613498 | GNL-LP: 1137820233 | Meta-Data: tex xml rdf rss | Show/Hide Abstract | Show/Hide BibTex

Abstract: As the Internet of Things permeates every aspect of human life, assessing the credence or integrity of the data generated by "things" becomes a central exercise for making decisions or in auditing events. In this paper, we present a vision of this exercise that includes the notion of data credence, assessing data credence in an efficient manner, and the use of technologies that are on the horizon for the very large scale Internet of Things.

BibTex:

    @Article{OJIOT_2017v3i1n10_Zadorozhny,
        title     = {Data Credence in IoT: Vision and Challenges},
        author    = {Vladimir I. Zadorozhny and
                     Prashant Krishnamurthy and
                     Mai Abdelhakim and
                     Konstantinos Pelechrinis and
                     Jiawei Xu},
        journal   = {Open Journal of Internet Of Things (OJIOT)},
        issn      = {2364-7108},
        year      = {2017},
        volume    = {3},
        number    = {1},
        pages     = {114--126},
        note      = {Special Issue: Proceedings of the International Workshop on Very Large Internet of Things (VLIoT 2017) in conjunction with the VLDB 2017 Conference in Munich, Germany.},
        url       = {http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:101:1-2017080613498},
        urn       = {urn:nbn:de:101:1-2017080613498},
        publisher = {RonPub},
        bibsource = {RonPub},
        abstract = {As the Internet of Things permeates every aspect of human life, assessing the credence or integrity of the data generated by "things" becomes a central exercise for making decisions or in auditing events. In this paper, we present a vision of this exercise that includes the notion of data credence, assessing data credence in an efficient manner, and the use of technologies that are on the horizon for the very large scale Internet of Things.}
    }

 Open Access 

A Highly Scalable IoT Architecture through Network Function Virtualization

Igor Miladinovic, Sigrid Schefer-Wenzl

Open Journal of Internet Of Things (OJIOT), 3(1), Pages 127-135, 2017, Downloads: 757, Citations: 1

Special Issue: Proceedings of the International Workshop on Very Large Internet of Things (VLIoT 2017) in conjunction with the VLDB 2017 Conference in Munich, Germany.

Full-Text: pdf | URN: urn:nbn:de:101:1-2017080613543 | GNL-LP: 1137820284 | Meta-Data: tex xml rdf rss | Show/Hide Abstract | Show/Hide BibTex

Abstract: As the number of devices for Internet of Things (IoT) is rapidly growing, existing communication infrastructures are forced to continually evolve. The next generation network infrastructure is expected to be virtualized and able to integrate different kinds of information technology resources. Network Functions Virtualization (NFV) is one of the leading concepts facilitating the operation of network services in a scalable manner. In this paper, we present an architecture involving NFV to meet the requirements of highly scalable IoT scenarios. We highlight the benefits and challenges of our approach for IoT stakeholders. Finally, the paper illustrates our vision of how the proposed architecture can be applied in the context of a state-of-the-art high-tech operating room, which we are going to realize in future work.

BibTex:

    @Article{OJIOT_2017v3i1n11_Miladinovic,
        title     = {A Highly Scalable IoT Architecture through Network Function Virtualization},
        author    = {Igor Miladinovic and
                     Sigrid Schefer-Wenzl},
        journal   = {Open Journal of Internet Of Things (OJIOT)},
        issn      = {2364-7108},
        year      = {2017},
        volume    = {3},
        number    = {1},
        pages     = {127--135},
        note      = {Special Issue: Proceedings of the International Workshop on Very Large Internet of Things (VLIoT 2017) in conjunction with the VLDB 2017 Conference in Munich, Germany.},
        url       = {http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:101:1-2017080613543},
        urn       = {urn:nbn:de:101:1-2017080613543},
        publisher = {RonPub},
        bibsource = {RonPub},
        abstract = {As the number of devices for Internet of Things (IoT) is rapidly growing, existing communication infrastructures are forced to continually evolve. The next generation network infrastructure is expected to be virtualized and able to integrate different kinds of information technology resources. Network Functions Virtualization (NFV) is one of the leading concepts facilitating the operation of network services in a scalable manner. In this paper, we present an architecture involving NFV to meet the requirements of highly scalable IoT scenarios. We highlight the benefits and challenges of our approach for IoT stakeholders. Finally, the paper illustrates our vision of how the proposed architecture can be applied in the context of a state-of-the-art high-tech operating room, which we are going to realize in future work.}
    }

 Open Access 

Towards a Model-driven Performance Prediction Approach for Internet of Things Architectures

Johannes Kroß, Sebastian Voss, Helmut Krcmar

Open Journal of Internet Of Things (OJIOT), 3(1), Pages 136-141, 2017, Downloads: 736, Citations: 1

Special Issue: Proceedings of the International Workshop on Very Large Internet of Things (VLIoT 2017) in conjunction with the VLDB 2017 Conference in Munich, Germany.

Full-Text: pdf | URN: urn:nbn:de:101:1-2017080613524 | GNL-LP: 1137820268 | Meta-Data: tex xml rdf rss | Show/Hide Abstract | Show/Hide BibTex

Abstract: Indisputable, security and interoperability play major concerns in Internet of Things (IoT) architectures and applications. In this paper, however, we emphasize the role and importance of performance and scalability as additional, crucial aspects in planning and building sustainable IoT solutions. IoT architectures are complicated system-of-systems that include different developer roles, development processes, organizational units, and a multilateral governance. Its performance is often neglected during development but becomes a major concern at the end of development and results in supplemental efforts, costs, and refactoring. It should not be relied on linearly scaling for such systems only by using up-to-date technologies that may promote such behavior. Furthermore, different security or interoperability choices also have a considerable impact on performance and may result in unforeseen trade-offs. Therefore, we propose and pursue the vision of a model-driven approach to predict and evaluate the performance of IoT architectures early in the system lifecylce in order to guarantee efficient and scalable systems reaching from sensors to business applications.

BibTex:

    @Article{OJIOT_2017v3i1n12_Kross,
        title     = {Towards a Model-driven Performance Prediction Approach for Internet of Things Architectures},
        author    = {Johannes Kro{\ss} and
                     Sebastian Voss and
                     Helmut Krcmar},
        journal   = {Open Journal of Internet Of Things (OJIOT)},
        issn      = {2364-7108},
        year      = {2017},
        volume    = {3},
        number    = {1},
        pages     = {136--141},
        note      = {Special Issue: Proceedings of the International Workshop on Very Large Internet of Things (VLIoT 2017) in conjunction with the VLDB 2017 Conference in Munich, Germany.},
        url       = {http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:101:1-2017080613524},
        urn       = {urn:nbn:de:101:1-2017080613524},
        publisher = {RonPub},
        bibsource = {RonPub},
        abstract = {Indisputable, security and interoperability play major concerns in Internet of Things (IoT) architectures and applications. In this paper, however, we emphasize the role and importance of performance and scalability as additional, crucial aspects in planning and building sustainable IoT solutions. IoT architectures are complicated system-of-systems that include different developer roles, development processes, organizational units, and a multilateral governance. Its performance is often neglected during development but becomes a major concern at the end of development and results in supplemental efforts, costs, and refactoring. It should not be relied on linearly scaling for such systems only by using up-to-date technologies that may promote such behavior. Furthermore, different security or interoperability choices also have a considerable impact on performance and may result in unforeseen trade-offs. Therefore, we propose and pursue the vision of a model-driven approach to predict and evaluate the performance of IoT architectures early in the system lifecylce in order to guarantee efficient and scalable systems reaching from sensors to business applications.}
    }

 Open Access 

A 24 GHz FM-CW Radar System for Detecting Closed Multiple Targets and Its Applications in Actual Scenes

Kazuhiro Yamaguchi, Mitumasa Saito, Takuya Akiyama, Tomohiro Kobayashi, Naoki Ginoza, Hideaki Matsue

Open Journal of Internet Of Things (OJIOT), 2(1), Pages 1-15, 2016, Downloads: 2221, Citations: 1

Full-Text: pdf | URN: urn:nbn:de:101:1-201704245003 | GNL-LP: 1130623858 | Meta-Data: tex xml rdf rss | Show/Hide Abstract | Show/Hide BibTex

Abstract: This paper develops a 24 GHz band FM-CW radar system to detect closed multiple targets in a small displacement environment, and its performance is analyzed by computer simulation. The FM-CW radar system uses a differential detection method for removing any signals from background objects and uses a tunable FIR filtering in signal processing for detecting multiple targets. The differential detection method enables the correct detection of both the distance and small displacement at the same time for each target at the FM-CW radar according to the received signals. The basic performance of the FM-CW radar system is analyzed by computer simulation, and the distance and small displacement of a single target are measured in field experiments. The computer simulations are carried out for evaluating the proposed detection method with tunable FIR filtering for the FM-CW radar and for analyzing the performance according to the parameters in a closed multiple targets environment. The results of simulation show that our 24 GHz band FM-CW radar with the proposed detection method can effectively detect both the distance and the small displacement for each target in multiple moving targets environments. Moreover, we develop an IoT-based application for monitoring several targets at the same time in actual scenes.

BibTex:

    @Article{OJIOT_2016v2i1n02_Yamaguchi,
        title     = {A 24 GHz FM-CW Radar System for Detecting Closed Multiple Targets and Its Applications in Actual Scenes},
        author    = {Kazuhiro Yamaguchi and
                     Mitumasa Saito and
                     Takuya Akiyama and
                     Tomohiro Kobayashi and
                     Naoki Ginoza and
                     Hideaki Matsue},
        journal   = {Open Journal of Internet Of Things (OJIOT)},
        issn      = {2364-7108},
        year      = {2016},
        volume    = {2},
        number    = {1},
        pages     = {1--15},
        url       = {http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:101:1-201704245003},
        urn       = {urn:nbn:de:101:1-201704245003},
        publisher = {RonPub},
        bibsource = {RonPub},
        abstract = {This paper develops a 24 GHz band FM-CW radar system to detect closed multiple targets in a small displacement environment, and its performance is analyzed by computer simulation. The FM-CW radar system uses a differential detection method for removing any signals from background objects and uses a tunable FIR filtering in signal processing for detecting multiple targets. The differential detection method enables the correct detection of both the distance and small displacement at the same time for each target at the FM-CW radar according to the received signals. The basic performance of the FM-CW radar system is analyzed by computer simulation, and the distance and small displacement of a single target are measured in field experiments. The computer simulations are carried out for evaluating the proposed detection method with tunable FIR filtering for the FM-CW radar and for analyzing the performance according to the parameters in a closed multiple targets environment. The results of simulation show that our 24 GHz band FM-CW radar with the proposed detection method can effectively detect both the distance and the small displacement for each target in multiple moving targets environments. Moreover, we develop an IoT-based application for monitoring several targets at the same time in actual scenes.}
    }

 Open Access 

Controlled Components for Internet of Things As-A-Service

Tatiana Aubonnet, Amina Boubendir, Frédéric Lemoine, Nöemie Simoni

Open Journal of Internet Of Things (OJIOT), 2(1), Pages 16-33, 2016, Downloads: 1478, Citations: 1

Full-Text: pdf | URN: urn:nbn:de:101:1-201704244995 | GNL-LP: 1130623629 | Meta-Data: tex xml rdf rss | Show/Hide Abstract | Show/Hide BibTex

Abstract: In order to facilitate developers willing to create future Internet of Things (IoT) services incorporating the nonfunctional aspects, we introduce an approach and an environment based on controlled components. Our approach allows developers to design an IoT "as-a-service", to build the service composition and to manage it. This is important, because the IoT allows us to observe and understand the real world in order to have decision-making information to act on reality. It is important to make sure that all these components work according to their mission, i.e. their Quality of Service (QoS) contract. Our environment provides the modeling, generates Architecture Description Language (ADL) formats, and uses them in the implementation phase on an open-source platform.

BibTex:

    @Article{OJIOT-2016v2i1n02_Aubonnet,
        title     = {Controlled Components for Internet of Things As-A-Service},
        author    = {Tatiana Aubonnet and
                     Amina Boubendir and
                     Fr\'{e}d\'{e}ric Lemoine and
                     N{\"o}emie Simoni},
        journal   = {Open Journal of Internet Of Things (OJIOT)},
        issn      = {2364-7108},
        year      = {2016},
        volume    = {2},
        number    = {1},
        pages     = {16--33},
        url       = {http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:101:1-201704244995},
        urn       = {urn:nbn:de:101:1-201704244995},
        publisher = {RonPub},
        bibsource = {RonPub},
        abstract = {In order to facilitate developers willing to create future Internet of Things (IoT) services incorporating the nonfunctional aspects, we introduce an approach and an environment based on controlled components. Our approach allows developers to design an IoT "as-a-service", to build the service composition and to manage it. This is important, because the IoT allows us to observe and understand the real world in order to have decision-making information to act on reality. It is important to make sure that all these components work according to their mission, i.e. their Quality of Service (QoS) contract. Our environment provides the modeling, generates Architecture Description Language (ADL) formats, and uses them in the implementation phase on an open-source platform.}
    }

 Open Access 

Evidential Sensor Data Fusion in a Smart City Environment

Aditya Gaur, Bryan W. Scotney, Gerard P. Parr, Sally I. McClean

Open Journal of Internet Of Things (OJIOT), 1(2), Pages 1-18, 2015, Downloads: 2896, Citations: 1

Full-Text: pdf | URN: urn:nbn:de:101:1-201704244969 | GNL-LP: 113062319X | Meta-Data: tex xml rdf rss | Show/Hide Abstract | Show/Hide BibTex

Abstract: Wireless sensor networks have increasingly become contributors of very large amounts of data. The recent deployment of wireless sensor networks in Smart City infrastructures have led to very large amounts of data being generated each day across a variety of domains, with applications including environmental monitoring, healthcare monitoring and transport monitoring. The information generated through the wireless sensor nodes has made possible the visualization of a Smart City environment for better living. The Smart City offers intelligent infrastructure and cogitative environment for the elderly and other people living in the Smart society. Different types of sensors are present that help in monitoring inhabitants' behaviour and their interaction with real world objects. To take advantage of the increasing amounts of data, there is a need for new methods and techniques for effective data management and analysis, to generate information that can assist in managing the resources intelligently and dynamically. Through this research a Smart City ontology model is proposed, which addresses the fusion process related to uncertain sensor data using semantic web technologies and Dempster-Shafer uncertainty theory. Based on the information handling methods, such as Dempster-Shafer theory (DST), an equally weighted sum operator and maximization operation, a higher level of contextual information is inferred from the low-level sensor data fusion process. In addition, the proposed ontology model helps in learning new rules that can be used in defining new knowledge in the Smart City system.

BibTex:

    @Article{OJIOT_2015v1i2n02_Gaur,
        title     = {Evidential Sensor Data Fusion in a Smart City Environment},
        author    = {Aditya Gaur and
                     Bryan W. Scotney and
                     Gerard P. Parr and
                     Sally I. McClean},
        journal   = {Open Journal of Internet Of Things (OJIOT)},
        issn      = {2364-7108},
        year      = {2015},
        volume    = {1},
        number    = {2},
        pages     = {1--18},
        url       = {http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:101:1-201704244969},
        urn       = {urn:nbn:de:101:1-201704244969},
        publisher = {RonPub},
        bibsource = {RonPub},
        abstract = {Wireless sensor networks have increasingly become contributors of very large amounts of data. The recent deployment of wireless sensor networks in Smart City infrastructures have led to very large amounts of data being generated each day across a variety of domains, with applications including environmental monitoring, healthcare monitoring and transport monitoring. The information generated through the wireless sensor nodes has made possible the visualization of a Smart City environment for better living. The Smart City offers intelligent infrastructure and cogitative environment for the elderly and other people living in the Smart society. Different types of sensors are present that help in monitoring inhabitants' behaviour and their interaction with real world objects. To take advantage of the increasing amounts of data, there is a need for new methods and techniques for effective data management and analysis, to generate information that can assist in managing the resources intelligently and dynamically. Through this research a Smart City ontology model is proposed, which addresses the fusion process related to uncertain sensor data using semantic web technologies and Dempster-Shafer uncertainty theory. Based on the information handling methods, such as Dempster-Shafer theory (DST), an equally weighted sum operator and maximization operation, a higher level of contextual information is inferred from the low-level sensor data fusion process. In addition, the proposed ontology model helps in learning new rules that can be used in defining new knowledge in the Smart City system.}
    }

 Open Access 

Accurate Distance Estimation between Things: A Self-correcting Approach

Ho-sik Cho, Jianxun Ji, Zili Chen, Hyuncheol Park, Wonsuk Lee

Open Journal of Internet Of Things (OJIOT), 1(2), Pages 19-27, 2015, Downloads: 6890, Citations: 5

Full-Text: pdf | URN: urn:nbn:de:101:1-201704244959 | GNL-LP: 1130622525 | Meta-Data: tex xml rdf rss | Show/Hide Abstract | Show/Hide BibTex

Abstract: This paper suggests a method to measure the physical distance between an IoT device (a Thing) and a mobile device (also a Thing) using BLE (Bluetooth Low-Energy profile) interfaces with smaller distance errors. BLE is a well-known technology for the low-power connectivity and suitable for IoT devices as well as for the proximity with the range of several meters. Apple has already adopted the technique and enhanced it to provide subdivided proximity range levels. However, as it is also a variation of RSS-based distance estimation, Apple's iBeacon could only provide immediate, near or far status but not a real and accurate distance. To provide more accurate distance using BLE, this paper introduces additional self-correcting beacon to calibrate the reference distance and mitigate errors from environmental factors. By adopting self-correcting beacon for measuring the distance, the average distance error shows less than 10% within the range of 1.5 meters. Some considerations are presented to extend the range to be able to get more accurate distances.

BibTex:

    @Article{OJIOT_2015v1i2n03_Cho,
        title     = {Accurate Distance Estimation between Things: A Self-correcting Approach},
        author    = {Ho-sik Cho and
                     Jianxun Ji and
                     Zili Chen and
                     Hyuncheol Park and
                     Wonsuk Lee},
        journal   = {Open Journal of Internet Of Things (OJIOT)},
        issn      = {2364-7108},
        year      = {2015},
        volume    = {1},
        number    = {2},
        pages     = {19--27},
        url       = {http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:101:1-201704244959},
        urn       = {urn:nbn:de:101:1-201704244959},
        publisher = {RonPub},
        bibsource = {RonPub},
        abstract = {This paper suggests a method to measure the physical distance between an IoT device (a Thing) and a mobile device (also a Thing) using BLE (Bluetooth Low-Energy profile) interfaces with smaller distance errors. BLE is a well-known technology for the low-power connectivity and suitable for IoT devices as well as for the proximity with the range of several meters. Apple has already adopted the technique and enhanced it to provide subdivided proximity range levels. However, as it is also a variation of RSS-based distance estimation, Apple's iBeacon could only provide immediate, near or far status but not a real and accurate distance. To provide more accurate distance using BLE, this paper introduces additional self-correcting beacon to calibrate the reference distance and mitigate errors from environmental factors. By adopting self-correcting beacon for measuring the distance, the average distance error shows less than 10\% within the range of 1.5 meters. Some considerations are presented to extend the range to be able to get more accurate distances.}
    }

 Open Access 

Modelling the Integrated QoS for Wireless Sensor Networks with Heterogeneous Data Traffic

Syarifah Ezdiani, Adnan Al-Anbuky

Open Journal of Internet Of Things (OJIOT), 1(1), Pages 1-15, 2015, Downloads: 2640, Citations: 11

Full-Text: pdf | URN: urn:nbn:de:101:1-201704244946 | GNL-LP: 1130621979 | Meta-Data: tex xml rdf rss | Show/Hide Abstract | Show/Hide BibTex

Abstract: The future of Internet of Things (IoT) is envisaged to consist of a high amount of wireless resource-constrained devices connected to the Internet. Moreover, a lot of novel real-world services offered by IoT devices are realized by wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Integrating WSN to the Internet has therefore brought forward the requirements of an end-to-end quality of service (QoS) guarantee. In this paper, the QoS requirements for the WSN-Internet integration are investigated by first distinguishing the Internet QoS from the WSN QoS. Next, this study emphasizes on WSN applications that involve traffic with different levels of importance, thus the way realtime traffic and delay-tolerant traffic are handled to guarantee QoS in the network is studied. Additionally, an overview of the integration strategies is given, and the delay-tolerant network (DTN) gateway, being one of the desirable approaches for integrating WSNs to the Internet, is discussed. Next, the implementation of the service model is presented, by considering both traffic prioritization and service differentiation. Based on the simulation results in OPNET Modeler, it is observed that real-time traffic achieve low bound delay while delay-tolerant traffic experience a lower packet dropped, hence indicating that the needs of real-time and delay-tolerant traffic can be better met by treating both packet types differently. Furthermore, a vehicular network is used as an example case to describe the applicability of the framework in a real IoT application environment, followed by a discussion on the future work of this research.

BibTex:

    @Article{OJIOT_2015v1i1n02_Syarifah,
        title     = {Modelling the Integrated QoS for Wireless Sensor Networks with Heterogeneous Data Traffic},
        author    = {Syarifah Ezdiani and
                     Adnan Al-Anbuky},
        journal   = {Open Journal of Internet Of Things (OJIOT)},
        issn      = {2364-7108},
        year      = {2015},
        volume    = {1},
        number    = {1},
        pages     = {1--15},
        url       = {http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:101:1-201704244946},
        urn       = {urn:nbn:de:101:1-201704244946},
        publisher = {RonPub},
        bibsource = {RonPub},
        abstract = {The future of Internet of Things (IoT) is envisaged to consist of a high amount of wireless resource-constrained devices connected to the Internet. Moreover, a lot of novel real-world services offered by IoT devices are realized by wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Integrating WSN to the Internet has therefore brought forward the requirements of an end-to-end quality of service (QoS) guarantee. In this paper, the QoS requirements for the WSN-Internet integration are investigated by first distinguishing the Internet QoS from the WSN QoS. Next, this study emphasizes on WSN applications that involve traffic with different levels of importance, thus the way realtime traffic and delay-tolerant traffic are handled to guarantee QoS in the network is studied. Additionally, an overview of the integration strategies is given, and the delay-tolerant network (DTN) gateway, being one of the desirable approaches for integrating WSNs to the Internet, is discussed. Next, the implementation of the service model is presented, by considering both traffic prioritization and service differentiation. Based on the simulation results in OPNET Modeler, it is observed that real-time traffic achieve low bound delay while delay-tolerant traffic experience a lower packet dropped, hence indicating that the needs of real-time and delay-tolerant traffic can be better met by treating both packet types differently. Furthermore, a vehicular network is used as an example case to describe the applicability of the framework in a real IoT application environment, followed by a discussion on the future work of this research.}
    }

 Open Access 

The Potential of Printed Electronics and Personal Fabrication in Driving the Internet of Things

Paulo Rosa, António Câmara, Cristina Gouveia

Open Journal of Internet Of Things (OJIOT), 1(1), Pages 16-36, 2015, Downloads: 3878, Citations: 11

Full-Text: pdf | URN: urn:nbn:de:101:1-201704244933 | GNL-LP: 1130621448 | Meta-Data: tex xml rdf rss | Show/Hide Abstract | Show/Hide BibTex

Abstract: In the early nineties, Mark Weiser, a chief scientist at the Xerox Palo Alto Research Center (PARC), wrote a series of seminal papers that introduced the concept of Ubiquitous Computing. Within this vision, computers and others digital technologies are integrated seamlessly into everyday objects and activities, hidden from our senses whenever not used or needed. An important facet of this vision is the interconnectivity of the various physical devices, which creates an Internet of Things. With the advent of Printed Electronics, new ways to link the physical and digital worlds became available. Common printing technologies, such as screen, flexography, and inkjet printing, are now starting to be used not only to mass-produce extremely thin, flexible and cost effective electronic circuits, but also to introduce electronic functionality into objects where it was previously unavailable. In turn, the growing accessibility to Personal Fabrication tools is leading to the democratization of the creation of technology by enabling end-users to design and produce their own material goods according to their needs. This paper presents a survey of commonly used technologies and foreseen applications in the field of Printed Electronics and Personal Fabrication, with emphasis on the potential to drive the Internet of Things.

BibTex:

    @Article{OJIOT_2015v1i1n03_Rosa,
        title     = {The Potential of Printed Electronics and Personal Fabrication in Driving the Internet of Things},
        author    = {Paulo Rosa and
                     Ant\'{o}nio C\^{a}mara and
                     Cristina Gouveia},
        journal   = {Open Journal of Internet Of Things (OJIOT)},
        issn      = {2364-7108},
        year      = {2015},
        volume    = {1},
        number    = {1},
        pages     = {16--36},
        url       = {http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:101:1-201704244933},
        urn       = {urn:nbn:de:101:1-201704244933},
        publisher = {RonPub},
        bibsource = {RonPub},
        abstract = {In the early nineties, Mark Weiser, a chief scientist at the Xerox Palo Alto Research Center (PARC), wrote a series of seminal papers that introduced the concept of Ubiquitous Computing. Within this vision, computers and others digital technologies are integrated seamlessly into everyday objects and activities, hidden from our senses whenever not used or needed. An important facet of this vision is the interconnectivity of the various physical devices, which creates an Internet of Things. With the advent of Printed Electronics, new ways to link the physical and digital worlds became available. Common printing technologies, such as screen, flexography, and inkjet printing, are now starting to be used not only to mass-produce extremely thin, flexible and cost effective electronic circuits, but also to introduce electronic functionality into objects where it was previously unavailable. In turn, the growing accessibility to Personal Fabrication tools is leading to the democratization of the creation of technology by enabling end-users to design and produce their own material goods according to their needs. This paper presents a survey of commonly used technologies and foreseen applications in the field of Printed Electronics and Personal Fabrication, with emphasis on the potential to drive the Internet of Things.}
    }

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